Selasa, 26 Juli 2011

Recount Text,Narrative Text, Procedure Text and Memo Text

Ini rangkuman yang sudah saya kumpulkan. Terima kasih bagi para penulis yang telah menulisnya. Semoga Bermanfaat !

 Procedure Text (http://bahasa.kompasiana.com/2011/01/17/procedure-text/)


Procedure is the set of steps which should be completed in the right sequence to get the goal. In our daily life, we often have to perform some steps to make or get something done. For example, early in the morning, you help your mother prepare cups of tea for all members of your family. In making cups of tea, you have to follow certain procedure in order to get a nice drink. Most of our daily activities are related with procedures. That is why, you should understand what a procedure text is, how to make and use it. The generic structure of procedure has three principal components namely (1) the goal, (2) materials and (3) steps.



A. Generic Structure of procedure

1. Goal : Title of the text (especially for a recipe)

2. Materials : Optional, not for all procedural texts

3. Steps : a series steps oriented to achieving the Goal

B. Generic Features

1. The use of Simple Present Tense, often in an imperative form e.g. Add some sugar, prepare it,.

2. The use mainly of temporal conjunction (or numbering to indicate sequence especially in written text)

a. As the sentence introducers (sequencers) especially in spoken text:

First … Firstly …

Second … Secondly …

Then … Thirdly …

After that … Afterwards …

Finally … Lastly …

e.g. Firstly, prepare some water!

b. As time introducers, especially in written text

… before …

After …

When …

While …

… until …

During …

e.g. While you are boiling the water, grind the chilies, onions and salt

C. Purpose

To explain how to make something



Now read this text!

Goal:

How to activate a Handphone

Nowadays, we need a handphone to connect to our colleagues. We can get it easily in the shop. When we buy it we shall get a handphone, a SIM card, a battery and a charger

steps:

This is the way to activate the handphone:

• First, open the cover of the handphone

• Second, insert the SIM card after being installed

• Third, insert the battery inside

• Fourth, close the battery with a cover of handphone

• Fifth, connect the lead from the charger to the bottom of the phone.

• Sixth, connect the charger to an AC wall outlet. Charging the battery supplied with the phone may take four up to six hours.

Seventh, when the battery is fully charged, the bar stops scrolling. Disconnect the charger from the AC outlet and the phone. Then, we are ready to make a phone call



 NARRATIVE TEXT (http://www.isdaryanto.com/definition-of-narrative-text)

Narrative text is a text which contains about story (fiction/non fiction/tales/folktales/fables/myths/epic) and its plot consists of climax of the story (complication) then followed by the resolution.

A narrative text is a text amuse, entertain and deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways. Narrative deal with problematic events which lead to a crisis or turning point of some kind, which in turn finds a resolution.

The narrative text short story is telling of a story or an account of a sequence of events. One of the four traditional forms of composition (along with description, exposition, and persuasion). Narration differs from exposition, which can also relate a sequence of events, in that narration need not be factual and may be written from the perspective of a character in the text.

The generic sctucture of a narrative text:

1. Orientation: Sets the scene and introduces the participants.

2. Complication: A crisis arises

3. Resolution: The crisis is resolved, for the better or for worse.

4. Re-orientation: Optinal

5. Evaluation: A stepping back to evaluate the plight

Dominant Language Features: (http://bahanajar.wordpress.com/textspeech/jenis-jenis-text-ing/ )

1. Using Past Tense

2. Using action verb

3. Chronologically arranged





NARRATIVE STORY ENGLISH EXAMPLE

GOLDEN EGGS

Long time ago a remote village, in central China was inhabited mainly with farmers and hunters. One day, a poor farmer lost his entire livestock to flood. He prayed hard to God for help or his family would die of starvation.

Few days later, an old man with long grey beard, passed by his house took pity on him. He gave him a goose and said “ I don’t have any expensive thing to give you and hope this goose will help you to ease your hardship.”

A week later to almost surprise the farmer found and egg in his yard. This was no ordinary egg. It was a golden egg. He was suddenly overcome with joy.

Thereafter, his livelihood had rapidly improved but the farmer had forgotten his earlier hardship. He became lazy, arrogant and spendthrift.

Strangely, the goose only laid one golden egg every six months. The greedy farmer lost his patient and slaughtered his goose thinking there were plenty of golden eggs inside its stomach.

Though he very much regretted for his foolishness, it’s already too late.**



 Recount Text (http://understandingtext.blogspot.com/2007/12/what-is-recount.html )



Definition of Recount

Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative



Generic Structure of Recount

1. Orientation: Introducing the participants, place and time

2. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past

3. Reorientation: It is optional. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story



Language Feature of Recount

• Introducing personal participant; I, my group, etc

• Using chronological connection; then, first, etc

• Using linking verb; was, were, saw, heard, etc

• Using action verb; look, go, change, etc

• Using simple past tense

Dominant Language Features: (http://bahanajar.wordpress.com/textspeech/jenis-jenis-text-ing/)

1. Using Past Tense

2. Using action verb

3. Using adjectives

Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event (http://bahanajar.wordpress.com/textspeech/jenis-jenis-text-ing/)

Bus was Flowing Right Behind Me (http://understandingtext.blogspot.com/2010/09/contoh-recount-text-recounting-horror.html)

I stayed a night at Sakhuwa of Gati VDC because a landslide near Baseri had blocked the road, The next morning, I hopped onto the bus with registration number Ba 2 Kha 4013 that was on the way to Barhabise from Tatopani.

I took a seat by the doorside and remember that there were around 35 passengers, including me. The driver started the bus. A kilometer into the journey, I noticed a ditch on the road.

The driver tried to avert the ditch. Before I could know what was going on, the bus started hurtling towards the Bhotekoshi.

I had given up hope of surviving, but found a ventilator glass broken. I came out of the shattered glass and plunged into the Bhotekoshi.

The river carried me for about 35 kilometers and left me on the shallow surface. I passed out after that. The rescuers took me to a hospital when I regained consciousness.

I heard later that all except four passengers had survived. I have sustained injuries on the face, hands and other body parts. Nonetheless, I feel that surviving was my destiny.

 MEMOS (http://www.english.udel.edu/wc/student/handouts/memos.pdf)



Definition:

A memo is an internal document that is generally short, focuses on a

single topic, reports information, makes a request, or recommends action.

It follows specific forms, depending on the organization.



Before writing, consider:

• Who will read the memo

• Why the memo is being written

• The tone and language



Certain words convey the tone of a memo (for example, negative,

positive, conciliatory, assertive, motivational, friendly, etc.). In

addition, the choice of language depends on the reader (coworker,

superior, or subordinate) and the objective.



Purpose of a Memo (http://www.samples-help.org.uk/sample-letters/sample-memo.htm )

A memo is used as a written reminder or to convey a short proposal or some basic information



Heading of memo:

To: Santa’s Elves

From: Santa Claus

Date: 30 September 2001

Subject: Meeting to discuss shortage of toy parts

Note: To prevent confusion, a memo should address only one subject. The

subject-line title should be accurate and complete.



Body of memo:

A memo should contain three parts:

1. For the introduction, start with one clear sentence that states the

subject and provides a summary of the topic.

2. The middle may contain several sentences of explanation.

3. The ending makes a request or a recommendation



Format:

Follow the guidelines of your particular company, university, etc.

These guidelines should include:

• Heading (To, From, Date, Subject)

Most memos now use this form for the date: 17 December 2002

• Names – follow guidelines for your institution

Example: A.B. Jones or Alexander Buckson Jones

• Position or title – include if your organization requires it.

• If copies should go to more people, put “cc:” with the names at the

bottom of the memo.

Electronic Memo (e-mail):

E-mail memos serve the same purpose as paper memos but are easier to

create and store, as well as faster to distribute.



Sample Memo:

To: Santa’s Elves

From: Santa Claus

Date: 30 September 2001

Subject: Meeting to discuss shortage of toy parts

I am calling a meeting at 3 p.m. tomorrow to discuss the shortage of toy

parts for the upcoming holiday season. Some of you have already

mentioned that various widgets and snippets are hard to obtain from the

usual sources. If we cannot obtain these items soon, we will have to find

new suppliers in order to meet our holiday deadline. We do not want to

disappoint any children.

Please bring a list of the parts in short supply to the meeting so that we

can determine what to do next. If you have any additional suggestions, be

sure to contact me or Mrs. Claus.

Cc: Mrs. S. Claus

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